In June, I lead a civil air patrol lesson on the weather, the atmosphere, the climate, and weather forecasting based on my recent Civil Air Patrol Education material arriving. I wrote up a list of resources for this here. This time my Civil Air Patrol educational materials are the Hydraulic Engineering STEM Kit. My kit came with 4 different projects to build and an activity guide.
The following list of terms came directly from the Civil Air Patrol’s “Hydraulic Engineering STEM Kit – Tips for AEOs and AEMs:”
Fluid Power – fluid power is a complex discipline of engineering that spans pneumatics and hydraulics; it is the use of fluids under pressure to generate, control, and transmit power.
Fluids – a liquid or a gas when defining fluids as it relates to fluid power within hydraulics & pneumatics.
Power – as it pertains to hydraulics & pneumatics, to supply with mechanical or electrical energy.
Pneumatics – (root Pneuma is from Latin/Greek and means air, wind, breath) the branch of physics, technology, and engineering concerned with mechanical properties of gases, pressurized gases or air; using compressed air for special applications.
Hydraulics – (root Hydra is from Greek and means water) at the basic level it is the liquid counterpart of pneumatics; focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids.
Viscosity – a thickness or internal friction attribute; the less viscosity the fluid has the easier movement.
Hydrostatics – pressurizing a liquid to produce a force, unmoving; liquid at rest; the weight of a liquid.
Hydrodynamics – manipulating liquid to flow to push something; liquid in motion (i.e. Hoover Dam is hydroelectric, historical grist mills are hydromechanical).
Pascal’s Principle – pressure applied anywhere in a closed container of fluid is transmitted equally to the container walls in all directions (P = F/A; pressure equals a force divided by an area).
Mechanical Advantage – the advantage gained by the use of a mechanism for transmitting force; the ratio of the force produced by a machine to the force applied to it.
Bernoulli’s Principle – pressure applied to a fluid is decreased when flowing through a narrowed section of pipe/hose; a slow-moving fluid exerts more pressure than a fast-moving fluid.
Venturi effect – the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of a pipe.
The following are links to online resources that I located (videos, lesson plans, e-books) that can be used to better understand hydraulic engineering:
- Hydraulics from Explain That Stuff
- What is hydraulics? from the National Fluid Power Association
- How Hydraulic Machines work from How Stuff Works
- Pascal’s Principle and Hydraulics from NASA
- Exploring the Venturi effect from COMSOL
- Bernoulli’s Principle and Venturi Tube from Science is For Everyone
- Khan Academy Hydraulics videos (search Hydraulics on Khan academy if the list I linked doesn’t appear)
The following are books (all at our local library) about hydraulic engineering:
- “Rubberband engineer: build slingshot-powered rockets, rubber band rifles, unconventional catapults, and more guerrilla gadgets from household hardware” by Lance Akiyama
- “Fluid mechanics and hydraulics” by Ranald V. Giles
- “Basic physics for all” by B. N. Kumar
- “National Geographic science of everything: how things work in our world from cell phones, soap bubbles & vaccines to GPS, x-rays & submarines.” by National Geographic
The following are DVDs (all at our local library) about hydraulic engineering:
- “The way things work. Pressure” from Schlessinger Media
- “The way things work. Pumps” from Schlessinger Media
- “Bill Nye the science guy. Pressure” from Disney Educational Productions
- “Science of Disney Imagineering. Fluids” by Disney Educational Productions